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undici

undici

v5.8.1

An HTTP/1.1 client, written from scratch for Node.js

npm install undici

README

undici

Node CI js-standard-style npm version codecov

An HTTP/1.1 client, written from scratch for Node.js.

Undici means eleven in Italian. 1.1 -> 11 -> Eleven -> Undici. It is also a Stranger Things reference.

Have a question about using Undici? Open a Q&A Discussion or join our official OpenJS Slack channel.

Install

npm i undici

Benchmarks

The benchmark is a simple hello world example using a number of unix sockets (connections) with a pipelining depth of 10 running on Node 16. The benchmarks below have the simd feature enabled.

Connections 1

Tests Samples Result Tolerance Difference with slowest
http - no keepalive 15 4.63 req/sec ± 2.77 % -
http - keepalive 10 4.81 req/sec ± 2.16 % + 3.94 %
undici - stream 25 62.22 req/sec ± 2.67 % + 1244.58 %
undici - dispatch 15 64.33 req/sec ± 2.47 % + 1290.24 %
undici - request 15 66.08 req/sec ± 2.48 % + 1327.88 %
undici - pipeline 10 66.13 req/sec ± 1.39 % + 1329.08 %

Connections 50

Tests Samples Result Tolerance Difference with slowest
http - no keepalive 50 3546.49 req/sec ± 2.90 % -
http - keepalive 15 5692.67 req/sec ± 2.48 % + 60.52 %
undici - pipeline 25 8478.71 req/sec ± 2.62 % + 139.07 %
undici - request 20 9766.66 req/sec ± 2.79 % + 175.39 %
undici - stream 15 10109.74 req/sec ± 2.94 % + 185.06 %
undici - dispatch 25 10949.73 req/sec ± 2.54 % + 208.75 %

Quick Start

import { request } from 'undici'

const {
  statusCode,
  headers,
  trailers,
  body
} = await request('http://localhost:3000/foo')

console.log('response received', statusCode)
console.log('headers', headers)

for await (const data of body) {
  console.log('data', data)
}

console.log('trailers', trailers)

Body Mixins

The body mixins are the most common way to format the request/response body. Mixins include:

Example usage:

import { request } from 'undici'

const {
  statusCode,
  headers,
  trailers,
  body
} = await request('http://localhost:3000/foo')

console.log('response received', statusCode)
console.log('headers', headers)
console.log('data', await body.json())
console.log('trailers', trailers)

Note: Once a mixin has been called then the body cannot be reused, thus calling additional mixins on .body, e.g. .body.json(); .body.text() will result in an error TypeError: unusable being thrown and returned through the Promise rejection.

Should you need to access the body in plain-text after using a mixin, the best practice is to use the .text() mixin first and then manually parse the text to the desired format.

For more information about their behavior, please reference the body mixin from the Fetch Standard.

Common API Methods

This section documents our most commonly used API methods. Additional APIs are documented in their own files within the docs folder and are accessible via the navigation list on the left side of the docs site.

undici.request([url, options]): Promise

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options RequestOptions
    • dispatcher Dispatcher - Default: getGlobalDispatcher
    • method String - Default: PUT if options.body, otherwise GET
    • maxRedirections Integer - Default: 0

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.request method.

Calls options.dispatcher.request(options).

See Dispatcher.request for more details.

undici.stream([url, options, ]factory): Promise

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options StreamOptions
    • dispatcher Dispatcher - Default: getGlobalDispatcher
    • method String - Default: PUT if options.body, otherwise GET
    • maxRedirections Integer - Default: 0
  • factory Dispatcher.stream.factory

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.stream method.

Calls options.dispatcher.stream(options, factory).

See Dispatcher.stream for more details.

undici.pipeline([url, options, ]handler): Duplex

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options PipelineOptions
    • dispatcher Dispatcher - Default: getGlobalDispatcher
    • method String - Default: PUT if options.body, otherwise GET
    • maxRedirections Integer - Default: 0
  • handler Dispatcher.pipeline.handler

Returns: stream.Duplex

Calls options.dispatch.pipeline(options, handler).

See Dispatcher.pipeline for more details.

undici.connect([url, options]): Promise

Starts two-way communications with the requested resource using HTTP CONNECT.

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options ConnectOptions
  • callback (err: Error | null, data: ConnectData | null) => void (optional)

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.connect method.

Calls options.dispatch.connect(options).

See Dispatcher.connect for more details.

undici.fetch(input[, init]): Promise

Implements fetch.

Only supported on Node 16.8+.

This is experimental and is not yet fully compliant with the Fetch Standard. We plan to ship breaking changes to this feature until it is out of experimental. Help us improve the test coverage by following instructions at nodejs/undici/#951.

Basic usage example:

import { fetch } from 'undici';


const res = await fetch('https://example.com')
const json = await res.json()
console.log(json);

You can pass an optional dispatcher to fetch as:

import { fetch, Agent } from 'undici'

const res = await fetch('https://example.com', {
  // Mocks are also supported
  dispatcher: new Agent({
    keepAliveTimeout: 10,
    keepAliveMaxTimeout: 10
  })
})
const json = await res.json()
console.log(json)

request.body

A body can be of the following types:

  • ArrayBuffer
  • ArrayBufferView
  • AsyncIterables
  • Blob
  • Iterables
  • String
  • URLSearchParams
  • FormData

In this implementation of fetch, request.body now accepts Async Iterables. It is not present in the Fetch Standard.

import { fetch } from "undici";

const data = {
  async *[Symbol.asyncIterator]() {
    yield "hello";
    yield "world";
  },
};

await fetch("https://example.com", { body: data, method: 'POST' });

response.body

Nodejs has two kinds of streams: web streams, which follow the API of the WHATWG web standard found in browsers, and an older Node-specific streams API. response.body returns a readable web stream. If you would prefer to work with a Node stream you can convert a web stream using .fromWeb().

import { fetch } from 'undici';
import { Readable } from 'node:stream';

const response = await fetch('https://example.com')
const readableWebStream = response.body;
const readableNodeStream = Readable.fromWeb(readableWebStream);

Specification Compliance

This section documents parts of the Fetch Standard that Undici does not support or does not fully implement.

Garbage Collection

The Fetch Standard allows users to skip consuming the response body by relying on garbage collection to release connection resources. Undici does not do the same. Therefore, it is important to always either consume or cancel the response body.

Garbage collection in Node is less aggressive and deterministic (due to the lack of clear idle periods that browsers have through the rendering refresh rate) which means that leaving the release of connection resources to the garbage collector can lead to excessive connection usage, reduced performance (due to less connection re-use), and even stalls or deadlocks when running out of connections.

// Do
const headers = await fetch(url)
  .then(async res => {
    for await (const chunk of res.body) {
      // force consumption of body
    }
    return res.headers
  })

// Do not
const headers = await fetch(url)
  .then(res => res.headers)

However, if you want to get only headers, it might be better to use HEAD request method. Usage of this method will obviate the need for consumption or cancelling of the response body. See MDN - HTTP - HTTP request methods - HEAD for more details.

const headers = await fetch(url, { method: 'HEAD' })
  .then(res => res.headers)
Forbidden and Safelisted Header Names

The Fetch Standard requires implementations to exclude certain headers from requests and responses. In browser environments, some headers are forbidden so the user agent remains in full control over them. In Undici, these constraints are removed to give more control to the user.

undici.upgrade([url, options]): Promise

Upgrade to a different protocol. See MDN - HTTP - Protocol upgrade mechanism for more details.

Arguments:

  • url string | URL | UrlObject
  • options UpgradeOptions
  • callback (error: Error | null, data: UpgradeData) => void (optional)

Returns a promise with the result of the Dispatcher.upgrade method.

Calls options.dispatcher.upgrade(options).

See Dispatcher.upgrade for more details.

undici.setGlobalDispatcher(dispatcher)

  • dispatcher Dispatcher

Sets the global dispatcher used by Common API Methods.

undici.getGlobalDispatcher()

Gets the global dispatcher used by Common API Methods.

Returns: Dispatcher

UrlObject

  • port string | number (optional)
  • path string (optional)
  • pathname string (optional)
  • hostname string (optional)
  • origin string (optional)
  • protocol string (optional)
  • search string (optional)

Specification Compliance

This section documents parts of the HTTP/1.1 specification that Undici does not support or does not fully implement.

Expect

Undici does not support the Expect request header field. The request body is always immediately sent and the 100 Continue response will be ignored.

Refs: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-5.1.1

Pipelining

Undici will only use pipelining if configured with a pipelining factor greater than 1.

Undici always assumes that connections are persistent and will immediately pipeline requests, without checking whether the connection is persistent. Hence, automatic fallback to HTTP/1.0 or HTTP/1.1 without pipelining is not supported.

Undici will immediately pipeline when retrying requests after a failed connection. However, Undici will not retry the first remaining requests in the prior pipeline and instead error the corresponding callback/promise/stream.

Undici will abort all running requests in the pipeline when any of them are aborted.

Manual Redirect

Since it is not possible to manually follow an HTTP redirect on the server-side, Undici returns the actual response instead of an opaqueredirect filtered one when invoked with a manual redirect. This aligns fetch() with the other implementations in Deno and Cloudflare Workers.

Refs: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/#atomic-http-redirect-handling

Collaborators

Releasers

License

MIT

Release Notes

5.8.1
By Robert Nagy • Published on August 3, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.8.0...v5.8.1

5.8.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on July 18, 2022

⚠️ Security Fixes ⚠️

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.7.0...v5.7.1

5.7.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on July 12, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.6.1...v5.7.0

5.6.1
By Robert Nagy • Published on July 8, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.6.0...v5.6.1

5.6.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on July 1, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.5.1...v5.6.0

5.5.1
By Matteo Collina • Published on June 13, 2022

⚠️ v5.5.1 - Security release

This releases fixes CVE CVE-2022-32210. See https://github.com/nodejs/undici/security/advisories/GHSA-pgw7-wx7w-2w33 for more details:

Undici.ProxyAgent never verifies the remote server's certificate, and always exposes all request & response data to the proxy. This unexpectedly means that proxies can MitM all HTTPS traffic, and if the proxy's URL is HTTP then it also means that nominally HTTPS requests are actually sent via plain-text HTTP between Undici and the proxy server.

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.5.0...v5.5.1

5.5.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on June 13, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.4.0...v5.5.0

5.4.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on May 31, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.3.0...v5.4.0

5.3.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on May 24, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.2.0...v5.3.0

5.2.0
By Matteo Collina • Published on May 11, 2022

What's Changed

New Contributors

Full Changelog: https://github.com/nodejs/undici/compare/v5.1.1...v5.2.0

General

License
MIT
Typescript Types
Built-in
Tree-shakeable
No

Popularity

GitHub Stargazers
4,231
Community Interest
2,959
Number of Forks
285

Maintenance

Commits
10/219/22060
Last Commit
Open Issues
85
Closed Issues
548
Open Pull Requests
20
Closed Pull Requests
123

Versions

Versions Released
10/219/2209
Latest Version Released
Aug 3, 2022
Current Tags
latest5.8.1
next4.0.0-rc.8

Contributors

ronag
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tniessen
Commits: 4
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ShogunPanda
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zekth
Commits: 2